you know them moments when you look in the mirror and you think holy shit that’s me because for some reason it feels like the person you’re looking at in the mirror is an unfamiliar stranger and you begin thinking about how you’re a person on a planet in a solar system in a galaxy in a universe and for a few minutes you ponder the origin and the meaning of existence and then shrug and return to your computer
just in case i lose this… [personal reference]
Physiology Lab Midterm Study Guide
36 Multiple Choice, 10 Fill-In
Muscles, NM Junction, Reflex Arc, Cutaneous Receptors and Referred Pain,
Eyes and Vision I and II
(3.3 - 3.5)
1. Babinski Reflex: Pen stroked on dorsal side of the foot from heel to toe; positive for Babinski if toes expand and fan out laterally; normal response negative is when toes curl in. This test involves the stimulation of ascending and descending spinal cord tracts.
2. Accomodation: The ability of the eye to focus the images of objects at different distances from the lens.
3. After Images: When an eye adapted to bright light, such as a light bulb, is closed or turned quickly toward a wall, the bright image of the lightbulb will still be seen (+). After a short period, ,the dark image of the lightbulb will appear against a lighter background due to the “bleaching” (rhondopsin visual pigment in the rod is dissociated by light from an object; the receptor cannot be stimulated for a short period of time) of the visual pigment of the affected receptors.
4. Antagonistic Ocular Muscles: Table 3.2 - Page 22
Muscle Cranial Nerve Innervation Movement of Eyeball
Lateral Rectus Abducens Lateral
Medial Rectus Oculomotor Medial
Superior Rectus Oculomotor Superior & Medial
Inferior Rectus Oculomotor Inferior & Medial
Inferior Oblique Oculomotor Superior & Lateral
Superior Oblique Trochlear Inferior & Lateral
6. Bell’s Palsy: paralysis of the facial nerve, causing muscular weakness in one side of the face which then causes one side of the face to droop.
8. Binocular Vision: Provides 3D vision and an accurate means of locating objects in space. The slight differences between the views by the two eyesare fused by the higher centers of the visual cortex to give us depth perception (cyclopean eye).
9. Cardiac Muscles:
10. Characteristics of Cornea: More convex anterios-most portion of the sclera; normally transparent but cloudy in preserved specimens.
12. Ciliary Sweat Glands: Lubricate the eyes
13. Classification plates 15-19:
14. Cones and Rods: Cones are responsible for color vision whereas rods are responsible for night vision (black and white). These photoreceptors are located on the retina.
15. Corneal Grafts:
17. Deuteranopia: A defect of vision in which the retina fails to respond to green.
18. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy:
19. Emmetropia: Normal 20/20 vision where light rays focus on the retina. No corrective lenses are needed.
20. Equilibrium and Vision:
21. External Anal Sphincter:
22. Field of Vision Disk: Held to forehead to determind point of vision and point of reading vision.
23. Fovea Centralis and its Location: It is the in yellow spot located near thr optic disc which contains a central pit = fovea centralis.
24. Free Nerve Endings: Unmylenated dendrites of sensory neurons; light touch, hot, cold, nociception (pain); located around hair follicles and throughout skin.
25. Hyperopia: Light rays focus behind the retina because the eyeball is too short. This is kown as farsightedness and can be corrected by a convex lens.
26. Lens Characteristics:
27. Longitudinal Fissure (Cerebrum):
28. Macula Lutea Location: the small, yellow aspot near the center of the retina; the fovea centraliz is located in its center.
29. Optic Disc Location: Where the ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve.
30. Optic Tracts (how they cross, which eyes they innervate, medial or lateral): The fibers from the medial part of each eye cross over to the opposite side at the optic chiasma
31. Pacinian Corpuscle:
32. Panoramic Vision:
33. Photopic Vision:
34. Presbyopia: Light rays focus in front of the retina because the eyeball is too long. This is kown as nearsightedness and can be corrected by a concave lens. (Myopia)
35. Pseudoisochromatic Plates:
37. Pyramidal or Corticospinal Tract:
38. Radial Muscles:
39. Referred Pain (Ex: gastric ulcers): The source of the nerve stimulation differs from the perceived location of the stimulus. In patients with stomach ulcers, the pain is referred to the region between the scapulae of the back. Referred pains are believed to result because both visceral sensory and somatic sensory neurons can synapse on the same interneurons in the spinal cord. These, in turn, project to same area of the somatosensory cortex(postcentral gyrus) devoted to a particular body location (such as the left arm).
40. Saline Solution:
41. Sensory Transducers:
42. Smooth Muscles:
43. Soma: the body of a nerve cell.
44. Tic Douloureux: Degenerationi of supporting cell —> nerve fibers exposed so touch and pain fibers are in contact with each other. The slightest touch may cause intense pain.
46. Two-Point Threshold Test:
47. Venae Cavae:
Catholics wear ashes to mark themselves as sinners, not holy or special. It’s a scarlet letter, not a gold medal
please. stop praying for my grandpa!!!! you are making him too strong. he broke out of the hospital and the cops cant get him. he’s too powerful